Headaches have been a part of human history for as long as we’ve been around. And for just as long, people have been searching for effective ways to alleviate the pain and discomfort that comes with them. The history of headache medicine is an interesting one, full of experimentation and breakthroughs. But who is responsible for these inventions?
The earliest known medication for headaches was willow bark. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans all used willow bark to alleviate pain. Willow bark contains salicylic acid, which is the active ingredient in aspirin.
In the 19th century, a chemist named Friedrich Bayer synthesized salicylic acid and created a more potent and consistent form of the medication, which he called “acetylsalicylic acid.” This was the birth of aspirin as we know it. Bayer is credited with the invention of aspirin and the manufacturing of the first aspirin pills.
In the 1950s, a new medication called Tylenol (acetaminophen) was developed as an alternative to aspirin. Tylenol was developed by McNeil Laboratories, which was later acquired by Johnson & Johnson. Tylenol was initially marketed as a less stomach-irritating alternative to aspirin and it quickly became a popular over-the-counter pain reliever.
In the 1960s, a British company called Smith, Kline & French (now GlaxoSmithKline) developed a medication called “Buccalmid,” which was a tablet that dissolved in the mouth. This was the first “fast-acting” headache medication, as it didn’t require water to swallow it.
In the 1970s, a medication called ibuprofen was developed by Boots UK. The drug was initially marketed as Brufen and later as Advil. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), like aspirin, but it is considered to have less potential for stomach irritation. Advil quickly became a popular alternative to aspirin and Tylenol.
Today, Tylenol is the active ingredient in more than 600 over-the-counter and prescription products. It is the most commonly used pain reliever in the United States.
Its competitor, Aspirin, was originally marketed as a pain reliever, but it was later found to have anti-inflammatory and anti-clotting properties. Today, aspirin is often prescribed as a preventative treatment for heart attacks and strokes.
The development of these headache medicines has been a vital step in the fight against headaches, making pain and discomfort more manageable for millions of people worldwide.